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27) Texto para as questões de 27 a 29

Cohen to teach his student how to paint, but he’s not struggling with a slow learner. Cohen’s student, AARON, is a computer program. Cohen has “taught” AARON guidelines on composition and color. In the past, AARON has used those rules to paint large art works for major museums such as London’s Tate Modern and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Now a company aims to bring AARON to computer monitors across the land as software ($19.95; available from for Windows PCs. After you download the program, AARON draws original pictures on your desktop, then fills them in with brushstrokes of color. You can also e-mail AARON’s creations to friends - AARON will redraw its art work on their computers. And unlike temperamental humans, AARON never needs “inspiration” - leave it on as a screen saver and the program churns out drawing after drawing.
But, says Cohen, AARON will never draw the same picture twice.
NEWSWEEK MAY 28, 2 0 0 1

According to the passage, AARON is a computer program that

a)can help slow learners.
b)has taught students how to paint.
c)can paint and draw.
d)has been available for 30 years.
e)has been bought by some museums.

28) We learn from the passage that Kurzweil

a)aims to market original pictures.
b)has designed AARON, the computer program.
c)commercializes paintings done by AARON.
d)has sold PCs all over the world.
e)is commercializing AARON as software.

29) According to the passage, AARON does NOT

a)function as a screen saver.
b)repeat the same drawing.
c)redraw a picture on a second computer.
d)send pictures by e-mail.
e)draw new pictures, one after the other.

30) Texto para as questões de 30 a 35

The role of women in Spanish society has changed fast since the country became a democracy after General Franco died in 1975. He had swept away liberal reforms introduced in the 1930s, when Spain was a republic. For women specifically, these included a benevolent divorce law and certain property rights. In the 1930s many women played a big part on the left, often fighting side by side with men in the pro-Republic militias during the 1936- 39 civil war. But after it the new regime, for the most part applauded by the church, put them back in the home as wives and mothers, with divorce forbidden and working outside frowned on. Change began in the 1960s when Spain opened up to tourists. Faced with competition from sexually liberated north Europeans, Spanish women “declared war on them, on men and on their elders”, in the words of Lucia Graves, author of “A Woman Unknown”, which recounts her life as an Englishwoman married to a Spaniard at the time. That aggressive self-assertion continues. Not wholly successfully. At universities, women students now outnumber men. A typical couple has one or two children these days, a far cry from the days when families of eight or ten were common. But Spanish women still face the problems of their sisters in northern Europe. Their progress at work is often blocked, their pay often lower than men’s.
The Economist August 11th 2001

According to the passage, since 1975,

a)the role of left-wing Spanish women has changed quite fast.
b)the new regime has faced problems when bringing about changes in the role of Spanish women.
c)there have been changes in the role of Spanish women.
d)Spanish women have played an important part in the government’s adoption of reformist policies.
e)many Spanish women have assumed the role of social reformers.

31) The passage states that

a)most of the liberal reforms introduced in the 1930s were approved by the church.
b)liberal reforms introduced when Spain was a republic were abolished under Franco’s regime.
c)many Spanish women fought in the pro-Republic militias in the early 1930s.
d)all liberal reforms introduced when Spain was a republic benefited women.
e)Spanish women obtained a benevolent divorce law and certain property rights after Franco died.

32) The passage tells us that after the civil war

a)divorced women were not allowed to work outside.
b)the church prohibited wives and mothers from working outside.
c)most women continued to fight for liberal reforms.
d)many women were unwilling to work outside.
e)Spain was under a regime that no longer allowed divorce.

33) Which of these statements is true according to the passage?

a)Although tourists helped Spain to develop in the 1960s, Spanish women declared war on them.
b)Spanish women rebelled against north European tourists who married Spaniards in the nineteen sixties.
c)Tourists started visiting Spain in the nineteen sixties, after the country underwent changes.
d)For Spanish women, the arrival of sexually liberated north Europeans in the 1960s was most unwelcome.
e)In the 1960s, sexually liberated Spanish women had to compete with their north European counterparts.

34) The passage tells us that Lucia Graves

a)portrays what her own life was like in the nineteen sixties in “A Woman Unknown”.
b)wrote a book about the problems she faced after marrying a Spaniard.
c)depicts the war declared by Spanish women before Spain opened up to tourists in her book.
d)recounts the life of Spanish women after the civil war in “A Woman Unknown”.
e)was a very aggressive English writer married to a Spaniard.

35) Which of the following statements does NOT reflect the situation in Spain now, according to the passage?

a)A family of eight is quite unusual.
b)Female workers are seldom paid higher wages than male ones.
c)Despite their gains, Spanish women have not achieved total success.
d)There are roughly equal numbers of male and female students at universities.
e)Spanish women are quite self-assertive.

36) Texto para as questões de 36 a 40

IF PUBLIC speaking gives you the willies, the chances are you’ll be just as scared of virtual people, experts have discovered. But in the long run these “avatars” will help you overcome your fears.
Mel Slater at University College London, and his colleague David-Paul Pertaub have developed a VR environment to help people overcome their phobias. In their virtual seminar room, people have to give a presentation to eight computer-generated people who can appear by turns fascinated, bored stiff or just annoyingly neutral.
While it’s not the first time VR has been used to treat phobias, such as fear of spiders or flying, no one knew if the technique could also help people to overcome their social phobias.
To find out, Pertaub watched how people behave in seminars and programmed the virtual people to do the same things: crossing their arms, frowning, yawning and putting their feet on the table. “Our negative audience is very negative,” says Slater. Then Slater and Pertaub compared the performances of 43 volunteers who gave a talk either to an attentive audience or to an unenthusiastic one. Surprisingly, the subjects responded as if the avatars were real.

21 July 2001• New Scientist •

According to the passage, experts have discovered that

a)people willing to talk to a virtual audience will hardly annoy a real one.
b)if public speaking gives us the willies, we will overcome our fears just by talking to an attentive virtual audience.
c)a virtual audience may be as frightening as a real one for people who fear public speaking.
d)a virtual audience is likely to be more frightening than a real one for people afraid of speaking in public.
e)if public speaking gives people the willies, a virtual audience is likely to make them less scared than a real one.

37) Which of these statements is true according to the passage?

a)The virtual-reality technique has proved to be more effective for social rather than other phobics.
b)The virtual-reality environment was developed to help people get rid of their fears.
c)People who have fear of spiders or flying will, in the long run, become social phobics.
d)The virtual-reality environment appears to be ineffective for treating some types of phobias.
e)So far the virtual-reality technique has been used only to help social phobics.

38) According to the passage,

a)while addressing the virtual audience, the volunteers behaved as if it was real.
b)the eight computer-generated people reacted negatively to the 43 volunteers’ talks.
c)the virtual people seemed to find the subjects of the volunteers’ talks extremely boring.
d)Slater and Pertaub were fascinated by the presentations, whereas the virtual audience showed no enthusiasm at all.
e)the way the subjects reacted when addressing the computer-generated people was no surprise to Slater and Pertaub.

39) Which of these statements is true according to the passage?

a)Pertaub discovered that virtual reality could be used to treat extreme fears by watching how people behave in seminars.
b)Slater and Pertaub were amazed to see the response of the attentive audience to the volunteers’ talks.
c)Despite their fears, the 43 subjects had a surprising performance when exposed to the virtual audience.
d)Pertaub programmed the computer-generated people to behave the way people do in seminars.
e)Pertaub watched people’s behaviour in seminars to help social phobics to adopt the same behaviour.

40) “ the long run” (line 4) means

b)before long
d)from now on
e)in the end